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Eschatology (from the Greek eschaton - the end of time and space limit, the ultimate goal of teaching and logos) v religious teachings about the end of the world, the meaning and end of earth's history, the final destiny of man (individual eschatology) and humanity (universal eshatolgiya). End of the world.

Eschatology

eschatology

Eschatology v (from the Greek eschaton - the end of time and space limit, the ultimate goal of teaching and logos v) v religious teachings about the end of the world, the meaning and end of earth's history, the final destiny of man (individual eschatology) and humanity (universal eshatolggiya).

In one form or another eschatology inherent in any religion, but the systematic concept of eschatology have been developed in monotheism, which contrasted the cyclical nature of mythology and polytheism the idea of the absolute end of the world, preceding the advance of God's kingdom on earth. Eschatology of the Old Testament anticipated reward for earthly suffering, only God's chosen people. In Christianity, posthumous retribution meant all the "saved", and the idea of doomsday was connected with the second coming of Christ, Armageddon, chiliasm and terrible trial.

Hope for the perpetrators of injustice and retribution eternal bliss righteous makes it desirable to attack "last days", which gave the meaning of the earth's history as a difficult path to union with God. However, the symptoms of imminent apocalyptic end were the source of the fear of earthly suffering and posthumous punishment of being forced to put up with misery and injustice, encouraged to repent and fueled by religious zeal. All this gave rise to a contradictory attitude toward eschatology and its ambiguous understanding of Protestantism.

In the era of the Reformation in the ideology of mass movements attempts to remove the contrast here and now and the next worlds by ozhivlleniya ideas earthly kingdom of God and the interpretation of the end of the world as the real address of evil. However, such practical chiliasm was sentenced by the same orthodox Protestantism. Dominating become antimillenaristskaya Augustinian eschatology, which recognizes the source of social change, only the will of the Creator, and the canonical evangelical tradition, according to which the right to trial and retribution v exclusive jurisdiction of God.

Protestant eschatology, justifying social passivity, to the forefront protective function. End of this evil world saturated with Adventists, Pentecostals, Jehovah's Witnesses is uniquely associated with the second coming of Christ and his saving mission, and not with the social activity of people.

The new religious right are trying to politicize eschatology. Thus, Falwell and Moon believe that a new world war could be the real end of the world only to Communists and atheists. Eschatological ideas of the representatives of liberal theology, neoortodoksii and some traditional areas away from literalism in the understanding of the end of the world and connect a "new being" overcoming of earthly time, and to gain eternity through a single faith (Tillich), or the triumph of Christ through the evangelization of the world (the idea of "the exercise of eschatology "Dodd). Questions underworld existence increasingly recede into the background, place the concerns of theologians osovbozhdaya opportunity not authorized over the death of humanity and civilization as a result of a nuclear disaster or unforeseen consequences of scientific and technological revolution (Brunner Berho).

End of the World in World Religions.
LAMB by Aleksandr I..

Typically, the onset of the Last Day associated with the coming of the Messiah - Jesus Christ, Saoshyanta (in Zoroastrianism), Maitreya (a Buddhist mythology), the Messiah (in Judaism). Messiah comes to defeat evil and make a terrible trial. Background Doomsday is a world catastrophe - the destruction of the world, a flood, a world conflagration, etc. After purification the world once again revived.

The most ancient texts of the predictions of Doomsday gives Avesta - holy book of ancient Iran religion of Zoroastrianism. Religious beliefs of Zoroastrians go back to the common Aryan, Indo-European source, so the Zoroastrian eschatology eschatology has parallels in other Indo-European peoples. Zoroastrianism later on Iranian territory was supplanted by Islam, but even today he is serving a religion among the peoples Parsis in India. Zoroastrian eschatology and the doctrine of confrontation between the forces of good and evil had a great influence on such teachings, which have become an integral part of Christianity, Islam, Manichaeism.

According to the teachings of Zoroastrian supreme god-creator Ahura Mazda defined period of existence of the universe in 12 000 years. In the first three thousand years, Ahura Mazda created the spiritual world and the light. At this time, Angra Manju - Zoroastrian devil is not in contact with the spiritual world * it existed outside of it. Then came the world of evil, then came and Angra Manju. Began the universal opposition of the good forces. (Ahura Mazda) and the forces of evil (Angra Manju).

The remaining 9 thousand years Zoroastrians divided into three age counter these original forces of creation. Initially, their concepts, three thousand years, Ahura Mazda created the material world - sky, water, and then at the end of man. Angra Manju created evil spirits - the devas and evil incarnate in the physical world - created the winter, destructive natural phenomena and monsters. In the next three thousand years Angra Manju broke with the monsters created in the material world. He sent the snake Ami, who killed the first man Gayomarta. But from the seed first man again revived people. The forces of Ahura Mazda to conquer evil and concluded Angra Manju underground. But from there he continued to harm. He taught black magicians magic, sent down to the people of illness, old age and death.

Last 3-thousand-year period starts from the preaching of Zarathushtra. According to the Avesta during those 3 thousand years, has consistently come in a thousand years, three of the Messiah Saoshyanta - the sons of Zoroaster: that is, if we consider that Zoroaster lived in the X century BC, they predicted the coming of the Messiah in the I century AD (Christ?), And then through a thousand or two thousand years. End of the World Avesta predicted around 2000 AD You do not need to take it too close to his heart - this calculation is based only on the magic value of 3: Three times, three times to multiply 10 by 10 and get a thousand years. Three epochs are known to all peoples of antiquity (gold, copper and iron age), the duration of these periods is determined by all the religions in different ways.

The era of the struggle between good and evil, Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu, the Avesta, should end in disaster. Then will come a terrible winter, the world will vlzstvovat dragon Agi-Dahak, and then, after the Earth will perish, and purified in the fire (and the sinners in the past three days would be tortured, molten bronze, which spilled from the sky), the world will again be reborn and acquire Asha - unshakeable the beginning and order.
Eschatological cosmic fire, according to the text of the Avesta, will begin with the fact that over the earth will rise several luminaries.

When, on the Mazda, come sunrise,
In order world got itself Asha?
When will come the mighty
saviors with wise sayings?
To come to the aid they
for the sake of his good ideas?
To me, for I have chosen you to complete,
of Ahura!
(Yasna 46, Lane. Infarction. Dyakonova)

The three eras speak and religious texts of the ancient Indians. The Indians believe that the universe is changed three times during each period of the world (kalpa): it goes from a state of creation and establishment of a state of continuous existence, and then - the destruction. But unlike the Zoroastrians Indians operate much longer.

In their submissions the duration of the Universe - day of Brahma - is 8 640 000 000 years. These days consist of 2 thousand mahayug (large south - periods). One mahadaga, or the period of Manu, is 4 320 000 years. This great Southern, in turn, is divided into four ordinary Yuga: 1) satyayuga - the golden age 1 728 000 Earth years, and 2) tretayuga - Silver Age 1 296 000 years, and 3) dvaparayuga - copper age 864 000 years, and 4) kadiyuga - iron age 432 000 years.

We are now, according to representations of Indians live in the past, the Iron Age, in its very beginning. So, until the Last Day is four thousand years.

In the Mahabharata in the book "Moksha Dharma" ( "The basis of liberation") is a description of the destruction of the world, who come to the end of the yuga (or that one and the same at the beginning of a new Yuga). Here's how he saw the sage Shuki:

"I tell you about the absorption, occurring at the end of the day (Manu), in the early Yuga ... the sun and semiyazychnoe flames blazing in the sky and the universe is filled with fervor - the world of flaming. Movable and immovable beings inhabiting the earth, will enter into a state of earthiness, previously disbanded. And when all the movable and immovable disintegrate, will land without grass, without trees, as the back of a turtle. When the water will take the property of the earth - the smell, then any rushing everywhere penetrating water, they are in motion, that filled the universe. When the same property of water (taste) the light is absorbed in themselves, then, if-shas its quality, the water calms down in the light. When the flames conceal the sun, standing in the middle of the sky, then the sky filled with this fire blazed. And when a property of light, image, absorb wind, then get up a great wind, the fire had died down ... same faceless, devoid of smell, taste, touch, the whole world is filled with roaring, sonorous abide space.

Indians are not foreign to the idea of a few suns, illuminated at the end of the Yuga. For example, in Chapter 185 of the Mahabharata ", which tells about the battle of Rama and Bhishma tells of how the opponents have used two guns to Brahma, who met in the sky shone like two suns," as if to show what happens at the end of Yuga " .

Similarly, the destruction of the world represented in the Elder Edda, Old Icelandic epics, stories of which also date back to the Indo-European source. In the Voluspa (velva - Witch) described the destruction of the world, accompanied by a world conflagration, followed by cold. "Three winters without a summer, darkness and the flood, are realized as one of the components of the disasters that will come when the end of the world ( Ragnarok).

This will occur because the evil enters the world and the time of the Wolf. The wolf Fenrir will swallow the sun, and will fight the elements. One of God enters into battle with Wolf, with another monster - the world serpent Jormungandr - join the fight son of Odin god Thor. End of the world will be preached horn Gjallarhorn (that horn like trumpet angels in the Christian "Apocalypse").

In part, as noted by a famous scientist NF Jirov, the End of the World recalls the time before the ice age. He drew attention to the fact that before the end of World Elivagar icy river, which arose in the north of the source Gvergelmir is moved to the south of the country aces - Old Icelandic gods and brings cold and dark, widening chasm Tinnuap (global maelstrom).

Here's how to "Voluspa" describes the flood and the End of the World:

The sun was darkened, the earth sinks into the sea, fell from the sky bright stars, the flames ravaging the fountain of life, unbearable heat of the sky comes.

Perhaps it refers and the onset of glaciers and active volcanoes in Iceland. But after a fiery death on "Edda", an updated world once again reborn.

He sees it rises again from the sea the earth green as before, falling water, fish eagle flies from the waves, he wants to catch. (Trans. A. Zhorsun)

The predictions of the fiery destruction of the world, which will be accompanied by a rain of fire, known to many people.

In many legends about the Doomsday South American Indian states and the universal flood, fire. For example, in the "Holy Book" Guatemalan Quiche Indian tribe is told about the flood and pouring from the sky burning tar, which were sent by God fear of Hur-Kahn:

"A big wave rose and overtook them, the bodies of men were made of cork, and women from cane core. Because they have forgotten their Creator and thanked him, they were killed and sunk. Resin and tar poured from the sky. Then the land was plunged into darkness, day and night were heavy rains.
In order that the world faces a fiery doom, agree and Buddhists, on the submissions which end of the world after the coming of the savior of Maitreya. Medieval scholar and lexicographer Biruni in his treatise "India" because of their broadcasts legend:

"Al-Iranshahari reports from the words of the Buddhist tradition, which is like those fables. Ostensibly to different sides of Mount Meru, there are four of the world, which in turn give way to life and destruction. The destruction of the world occurs due to the fact that they possessed the fire, when the sun rises, seven, one after another. Water sources dry up, and a hot fire alleged in the world, even from the inside. Life begins when the fire left the world and passes into another. When the fire leaves the world, it raised a strong wind, which fetches the clouds and cause rain. Rain falls before long the world will not like the sea. Of its foam formed shells, which are connected souls, and from them after the recession of water there are people. "

Very similar to the one described now and the end of Light in the representation of the adherents of Manichaeism, a syncretic religion, which originated in the III century AD and absorbed much of the beliefs of Judaism, Buddhism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism. Manichaean Manu prophet taught that the world is the struggle of antagonistic forces - light and darkness, good and evil. The first gives rise to the human soul, the second - the body. After all the souls of the righteous will be raised to its source - the sun and will release a prisoner in a dungeon of the world, will start a world conflagration and the End of the era.

In Judaism eschatology, End of the World accompanies Judgment, which administers the Almighty Yahweh. Yahweh - the terrible Old Testament God, God the creator, God, which was the patriarch Abraham and Isaac, progenitor of the Jews. On his arrival heralds the Messiah Messiah (on the late Talmudic interpretations), then ends the era of exile and the people of Israel going to the Mount Zion. Cosmic crash marks the end of the world, accompanied by an earthquake, darkness, hailstones, flood, etc.

Further development of the Old Testament story actually made in Christianity. A detailed description of recent times, the eschatological battle between good and evil given by John the Theologian in the "Apocalypse" - in Greek "Revelation".

Common view is that John the Evangelist was not referring to any particular disaster, the more is made in the past. He relied on the Old Testament texts, the prophecy of the Last Court to describe the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, and executions of Egypt, on the apocalyptic literature of the time (well-known scholar of Christianity Renan counted 15 "Apocalypse", survived to our days: "The Apocalypse of Ezra, the Apocalypse Jude, the Apocalypse of Baruch ", etc.). Before turning directly to the text of the Apocalypse, it is necessary to consider some of the mentioned sources.

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